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Guildhall School of Music & Drama
- Policy context
- The Guildhall School of Music & Drama (Guildhall School) is one of the world’s leading conservatoires and drama schools, offering musicians, actors, stage managers and theatre technicians an inspiring environment in which to develop as artists and professionals.
- In addition to its role as a higher education institution, the School is a leading provider of specialist music training for under 18s with nearly 2,500 students in Junior Guildhall and the Centre for Young Musicians. The School deals with children and young people in a number of contexts:
- Junior Guildhall
- Centre for Young Musicians (including regional centres)
- Creative Learning
- Enterprise (including Summer Schools)
- Occasionally there are also young people under the age of 18 enrolled in higher education courses
- This policy provides the safeguarding framework for all aspects of the Guildhall School’s contact with children and adults at risk. Its primary purpose is to provide a safe creative learning environment for all, but particularly for children and adults at risk. It also aims to protect staff (and students working in professional contexts) by ensuring that they are:
- fully aware of correct practice in relation to safeguarding matters
- not placed and do not place themselves in vulnerable situations which might result in misunderstandings or allegations of abuse.
- This policy applies to:
- All staff, casual staff and volunteers who come into contact with children or adults at risk or work on events with children or adults at risk at the Guildhall School, Barbican Centre, Centre for Young Musicians, London Schools Symphony Orchestra, or lessons and events provided by Guildhall School, Barbican Centre, Centre for Young Musicians, London Schools Symphony Orchestra
- All contractors as above, including support staff such as cleaners and caterers and builders.
- Visitors to the School
- Freelance artists, workshop leaders and service providers as above
- Senior School students on work placements as part of an approved programme of study, as above
- Members of the Board of Governors.
- This policy has had regard to:
- The City of London Safeguarding Policy 2014
- Keeping Children Safe in Education Statutory guidance for schools and colleges July 2015
- The Prevent duty June 2015
Relevant legislation, including the Children Act 1989 and 2004, `Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006, Relevant government guidance including Safeguarding Children: Guidance for Higher Education Institutions, “What to do if You are Worried a Child is Being Abused” 2003,Guidance for Safe Working Practice for the Protection of Children and Staff in Education Settings 2005 Department of Health’s guidance, “No Secrets” 2000 “Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education” January 2007, Guidance for Safer Working Practice for Adults who Work with Children and Young People in Education Settings” March 2009, “Working Together to Safeguard Children” March 2015, “Dealing with Allegations of Abuse Against Teachers and Other Staff” August 2011, and “Use of reasonable force in schools” September 2012, Statement of Government Policy on Adult Safeguarding (2013) Guidance for Safe Working Practice for the Protection of Children and Staff in Education Settings
Other relevant standards and guidance including: City and Hackney Child Protection Guidelines 2008, London Child Protection Procedures, 4th edition, 2010, City & Hackney Protecting adults at risk: London multi-agency policy and procedures to safeguard adults from abuse, 2011The Data Protection Act 1998
- This policy has been prepared in consultation with the City of London’s Children & Community Services Departments.
- The Guildhall School’s Safeguarding policy is displayed on the School’s website and is distributed to all students, parents and staff and is available on request.
- Statement of Policy
- The Guildhall School recognises that children, young people over the age of 18, and adults at risk, of all races, religions and cultures, with or without disabilities, from any model of family life have an equal right to protection from abuse.
- We recognise that it is the collective responsibility of the Board of Governors, all teaching and support staff, and students working in professional contexts, to provide a safe environment, protect children at risk from any form of abuse and to be aware of signs of abuse or neglect in children or adults at risk and report any incident to the Lead Safeguarding Contact.
- Defining children and Adults at Risk
- This policy defines anyone under the age of 18 as a child.
- This policy defines an adult at risk as any adult who has a greater than normal risk of abuse owing to old age, infirmity, disability, sensory impairment, or mental health. This vulnerability may be temporary.
- Defining matters of safeguarding concern
Definitions of abuse and neglect
- Child abuse is ill-treatment or neglect which causes injury, suffering or “significant” harm. An abused child can be a boy or girl under the age of 18 who has suffered from physical injury, physical neglect, failure to thrive, emotional or sexual abuse, which the person who has had custody, charge or care of the child either caused or knowingly failed to prevent. Having custody, charge or care includes any person, in whatever setting who, at the time, is responsible for that child. Child abuse can also occur at the hands of another child.
4.2 Adult at risk abuse is ill-treatment or neglect which causes injury, suffering or “significant” harm; as well as a violation of a person’s human rights it can also be a violation of a person’s civil rights. Adults at Risk can be abused in the same way as a child, but as an adult could additionally suffer from theft, fraud, the misuse of their property, finances and benefits, including coercion in relation to wills and other forms of inheritance, or they could be electorally disenfranchised.
Further information and definitions of abuse can be found in Appendix 3
- Lead Safeguarding Contacts
- The Lead Safeguarding Contact is
Alison Mears, Head of Junior Music Courses.
020 7382 7160
Out of hours please contact the Front desk on 020 7382 7194
- In the event that the Lead Safeguarding Contact is unavailable, the following staff have been appointed as departmental child protection leads, and will act as Secondary Lead Safeguarding Contacts:
Head of Junior Guildhall – Derek Rodgers
020 7382 7160
Director of Creative Learning – Sean Gregory
020 7628 7381
Director of Centre for Young Musicians (including regional centres) – Stephen Dagg
020 7928 3844
Head of CYM Saturday Centre – Geoff Harniess
020 7928 3844
Head of Registry Services (for Senior School) – Katharine Lewis
020 7382 7143
Enterprise (including Summer Schools and short courses) – Sian Brittain
020 7382 7191
- In cases of allegations against staff that are in a professional capacity, support staff or contractors, the Lead Safeguarding Contact will consult the Local Authority Designated Officer for the Local Authority in which the alleged abuse occurred, and the City LADO. Where a disclosure is made in respect of a family member or another individual outside the School, the Lead Safeguarding Contact will inform the Police and/or Local Children’s Services. In all cases the Lead Safeguarding Contact will also inform the Principal.
- The safeguarding contact will work in partnership with all relevant agencies for the benefit of the child or Adult at Risk. Consideration will be given to issues of confidentially, consent and recording in accordance with the City and Hackney Child Protection Guidelines 2008 and section 3.3 of the London Child Protection Procedures, 4th edition, 2010.
- The Lead Safeguarding Contact will:
- Ensure that they and the Secondary Safeguarding Contacts, in their roles as named Safeguarding Contacts, receive training on safeguarding every two years to ensure that their knowledge and skills are up to date.
- Ensure that all staff who have regular access to children and/or adults at risk undertake appropriate training to equip them with the knowledge to undertake their safeguarding responsibilities, and that refresher training is undertaken at least every three years.
- Report safeguarding concerns to the Local Authority Designated Officer for the City and Local Authority in which the incident took place.
- Ensure that appropriate records are kept about safeguarding, and that these are separately and confidentially stored.
- Submit an annual safeguarding report to the Board of Governors highlighting any safeguarding issues and mitigation that has occurred throughout the year.
- Sit on the City of London Subcommittee for the City and Hackney Safeguarding Children Board known as the City Executive Board and the City Safeguarding Education Forum
- Implementing the policy to create a safe and protective environment
- Code of conduct
All members of staff and students working in professional contexts have a commitment to follow the guidelines and procedures outlined in this document, and specifically the safeguarding code of conduct included at appendix 4. All staff will be issued with this policy and asked to sign a form declaring that they understand their obligations in respect of safeguarding.
- Recruitment of staff
The Guildhall School will implement appropriate recruitment procedures for personnel working on activities with children and/or adults at risk, having substantial access to children and/or adults at risk, access to children’s personal information or images, or who through the course of their work are liable to find themselves in a position of trust. These procedures will include:
- Identity and Disclosure and Barring Service checks carried out by HR on offer of a post
- Two reference checks which confirm their suitability to work with children
- Ensuring all staff regularly in contact with children and/or who have access to their registration records will have completed Disclosure and Barring Service checks (DBS checks, formerly CRBs);
- All contracts to include guidelines on safeguarding children and adults at risk.
- All Staff who regularly come into contact with children and/or adults at risk, including contracted support staff such as cleaners and caterers, will be required to have an appropriate Disclosure Barring check on appointment and then every three years following. These checks will also be carried out on existing Staff with a break in service of more than three months or where Staff have, since their initial appointment to a position not requiring a Disclosure Barring check, moved to work that involves significantly greater responsibility for children. Disclosure Barring checks for Governors are the responsibility of the City of London Corporation and will be undertaken in accordance with procedures adopted by the City of London.
- The admission of students under 18 years of age to the senior School
The senior School is an adult environment and the School has a specific duty of care towards any student admitted to a degree programme who is under the age of 18 at the time of enrolment; special arrangements will be put in place in line with the “Policy in relation to the admission and support for students entering the School under the age of 18”.
- Students working in professional contexts
The Guildhall School will ensure that all senior School students who will work unsupervised with children or adults at risk as part of their programme of studies will complete a disclosure application form and undergo a Disclosure and Barring Service Disclosure (see also the School’s “Admission of Students and Criminal Conviction Policy”). The cost of the DBS disclosure for students will be paid for by the School, through the Registry Department.
The School will ensure that all students have the opportunity to achieve the award for which they have registered, regardless of the outcome of the DBS disclosure, by making alternative study pathways available.
Before a student is sent to a work placement where there are children or adults at risk they will be provided with a briefing by their course tutor(s) and a copy of this policy.
- Induction and training for staff
- It is essential that all staff who have access to children and adults at risk understand their safeguarding responsibilities and what to do in the event a disclosure is made to them, or they have reason to suspect that abuse is taking place.
- All staff will receive training on safeguarding for children as part of their induction. Staff will subsequently receive training and updates on safeguarding at least every three years. Owing to the nature of the School’s staffing body, e-learning has been identified as the best tool for ensuring that staff, (some of whom may only be onsite on Saturdays or during the holidays) have access to training.
- All members of staff will receive a copy of the safeguarding policy and will be asked to sign a form to confirm they have seen the policy and understand the processes for Safeguarding and what is expected of them.
- Training will cover matters such as:
- How to respond to disclosures of abuse
- Signs and indicators
- Making and keeping reports
- Supporting children and adults at risk and supporting staff
- Risk assessments of School activities not on School premises (children)
- If a missed lesson is to be made up it should ideally take place on School premises. If the lesson has to take place in a teacher’s or student’s house the parent/carer must sit in. Parents will be asked to sign a document acknowledging this. Staff must follow the guidance contained within the code of conduct.
- Risk assessments must be carried out in advance of utilising non-School premises for lessons or activities in line with the Hire of Outside premises policy and risk assessment process.
- All travel within the UK and Overseas will be organised in accordance with the relevant travel policy and guidance document and the relevant risk assessment pro forma completed. Travel authorisation must be sought in advance from the Head of Department.
- Reporting and recording incidents
- The overall lead for safeguarding at the Guildhall School is Alison Mears. Additionally each part of the Guildhall School has identified a departmental lead, and these will act as safeguarding leads in the absence of Alison Mears
- Each departmental lead will brief their departments on child protection and/or adult at risk matters and HR will ensure that all relevant personnel have completed Disclosure and Barring Service checks.
- Any incidents should be referred to and managed by the Safeguarding Lead on the day the incident occurs. The Safeguarding Lead will then inform the Principal and the Local Authority Designated Officer for the City and Local Authority in which the incident took place if appropriate.
- Any incidents will be recorded, and the records confidentially and securely stored in accordance with the Data Protection Act 1998 and kept separate from other student records.
- All referrals and all recording will be in accordance with Local Safeguarding Child Board (or Local Safeguarding Adults Board) procedures and liaison with appropriate welfare agencies will follow on disclosure or suspicion to abuse in accordance with these procedures.
- If, at any point, there is a risk of immediate serious harm to a child a referral should be made to children’s social care immediately. Anybody can make a referral.
- Contractors and visitors
- The staff of any contractor regularly on site and with opportunity for contact with children will be subject to Disclosure and Barring Service checks. Contractors must be appropriately supervised while on site. The supervision of contractors is the responsibility of the department employing them.
- Contractors who visit the site irregularly and may come into contact with children will provide written assurance of their staff having had Disclosure and Barring Service checks within the past three years. It is recognised that arrangements with contractors will require on-going monitoring as to the eligibility of the contractor or their employees to work with children.
- It is recognised that it is not possible to subject visitors to Disclosure and Barring Service checks, and therefore all visitors must be appropriately supervised by Guildhall School staff at all times. Visitors must not be left alone with children.
- Leadership and Governance
- The Guildhall School adheres to the principles of the Children Act 1989 and the Department of Health’s guidance, “No Secrets” 2000 and works in partnership with all agencies involved with child protection. The Lead Safeguarding Contact will be a member of the City Safeguarding Executive Committee and Education Sub Group. The Lead Safeguarding Contact is responsible for liaising with the other safeguarding contacts within the School and the relevant Local Authority Designed Officers and relevant welfare agencies as appropriate in relation to: policy and practice, on-going training, record keeping and annual reporting to the Board.
- The Board of Governors of the Guildhall School has overall responsibility for ensuring that there are sufficient measures in place to safeguard children and Adults at Risk. The Board of Governors will undertake an annual review of its safeguarding policy and appoint a Lead Governor to champion safeguarding. All governors will receive a copy of this policy and training on safeguarding.
- A suitably qualified Lead Governor will be nominated with overall responsibility for child and adult at risk safeguarding matters. There are currently two nominated safeguarding governors.
- An annual report will be submitted to the Board of Governors on safeguarding. This report will provide the Board with monitoring information to enable the Board to consider whether the School’s child and adult at risk protection duties are effectively discharged. This will include information in respect of staff training and anonymous case details.
- Governors do not necessarily need to have a Disclosure and Barring Service clearance by virtue of their appointment to the Board of Governors. However, it has been decided that in the City members of boards of all educational establishments will undergo DBS checks.
- Procedures to be followed by all staff in matters of child and adult at risk protection
- Should an incident occur whereby a member of staff or a student suspects a child or adult at risk has been abused within or outside the School, the staff member or student must report as soon as possible to one of the Safeguarding Lead Contacts on the same day as a disclosure is made. This will be followed as soon as possible by a meeting or discussion with the Lead Safeguarding Contact to decide on an immediate course of action.
- In cases of allegations against staff that are in a professional capacity, support staff or contractors, the Lead Safeguarding Contact will consult the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO) for the Local Authority in which the alleged abuse occurred, and the City LADO. Where a disclosure is made in respect of a family member or another individual outside the School, the Lead Safeguarding Contact will inform the Police and/or Local Children’s Services or Adults Social Care Team. In all cases the Lead Safeguarding Contact will also inform the Principal. Consideration will be given to issues of confidentiality, consent and recording in accordance with City & Hackney Child Protection Guidelines 2008 and section 3.3 of London Child Protection Procedures, 4th edition, 2010 or City & Hackney Protecting adults at risk: London multi-agency policy and procedures to safeguard adults from abuse, 2011
- Following consultation with LADO, Children’s Service, Adults Social Care Team or Police the following procedures may then be instigated:
- Consultation with other members of staff to ascertain whether they have concerns;
- Consultation with the child’s/ adult’s Local Authority;
- Consultation with the child’s day school where applicable;
- Notification of parents/carer to both share/clarify information where applicable;
- Offering of support to the child/adult;
- Initiation of an observation brief with other members of staff involved;
- Taking of brief and factual notes. The actual words of the child and parents (or adult at risk) should be noted.
- What to do if a child or adult at risk makes a disclosure to you alleging they have suffered abuse:
Listening to the child or adult at risk
Whenever a child or adult at risk reports that they are suffering or have suffered significant harm through abuse or neglect, or have caused or are causing physical or sexual harm to others, the initial response from all professionals should be limited to listening carefully to what the child or adult at risk says in order to:
- Clarify the concerns;
- Offer reassurance about how the child/adult at risk will be kept safe;
- Explain what action will be taken.
The child/adult at risk must not be pressed for information, led or cross-examined or given false assurances of absolute confidentiality.
If the child/adult at risk can understand the significance and consequences of making a referral to the Local Authority children’s social care/Adults Social Care Team, they should be asked their view. However, it should be explained to the child that whilst their view will be taken into account, the professional has a responsibility to take whatever action is required to ensure the child’s safety and the safety of other children.
Disclosures made about others
Where a disclosure is made about another child/adult at risk by an adult or a child/adult at risk, the same principles of listening to the person making the disclosure and carefully recording the concerns must be followed.
Parental /Carer Consultation
Where practicable, concerns should be discussed with the parent or carer and agreement sought for a referral to Local Authority children’s social care, unless seeking agreement is likely to place the child at risk of significant harm through delay or the parent’s actions or reactions.
Reporting, Recording and Confidentiality
Having received a disclosure from a child/adult at risk, staff must make a written record and pass this to the Lead Safeguarding Contact or departmental safeguarding lead, without delay. A record keeping template is included at appendix 6 .
Members of staff must report immediately to the Lead Safeguarding Contact or departmental safeguarding lead if they have a suspicion regarding another colleague. It is very important that anyone concerned, who suspects abuse or to whom it has been disclosed, maintains confidentiality at all times. Other members of staff will be informed on a need-to-know basis.
Notes must be recorded on all concerns relating to child or adult at risk protection and these notes will be contained in a separate file, kept by the Lead Safeguarding Contact.
- Everyone who comes into contact with children and their families has a role to play in safeguarding children. It is the responsibility of each member of staff to raise his/her awareness on matters relating to safeguarding. It is recognised that this is a highly sensitive and difficult area of work which few teachers will have experienced previously. Staff should maintain an attitude of “it could happen here”.
- From 1 July 2015 all schools and colleges have a duty under section 26 of the Counter – Terrorism and Security Act 2015 to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. This duty is known as the Prevent Duty. Any concern should be reported to the Safeguarding Lead in the first instance. Further information can be found in Appendix 3.
- Section 5B of the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 (as inserted by section 74 of the Serious Crime Act 2015) will place a statutory duty from October 2015 on teachers, social workers and healthcare professionals to report to the police where they discover FGM has been carried out on a girl under 18. Any concern should be reported to the Safeguarding Lead in the first instance. Further information can be found in Appendix 3.
This Safeguarding Policy was submitted to the Board of Governors of the Guildhall School of Music & Drama for approval on 7 September 2015.
Date of next revision August 2016
Appendix 1 – key contact details
Lead Safeguarding Contact – Alison Mears
020 7382 7160
Head of Junior Guildhall – Derek Rodgers
020 7382 2375 or 020 7382 7160
Director of Creative Learning – Sean Gregory
020 7628 7381
Director of Centre for Young Musicians including regional centres – Stephen Dagg
020 7928 3844
Head of CYM Saturday Centre – Geoff Harniess
020 7928 3844
Head of Registry Services (Senior School) – Katharine Lewis
020 7382 7143
Enterprise (including Summer Schools and short courses) – Sian Brittain
020 7382 7191
City of London Local Authority Designated Officer – Pat Dixon
020 7332 1215
City Children’s Social Care Team
020 7332 3621
|Out of hours Children’s Social Care||0208 356 2346 or
0208 356 2710
|City Social Care Team Adult Services||0207 332 1224|
|Out of hours Adult Social Care||020 8356 2579|
Police Public Protection Unit
0207 601 2941
(or in an emergency 999)
City “Prevent” Contact
Department for Education
NSPCC FGM helpline
020 7340 7264
0808 800 5000
0800 028 3550
Appendix 2 – The management of allegations against staff
In the first instance, the Lead Safeguarding Contact should be contacted with reports of inappropriate behaviour or abuse (whether physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect). These include concerns relating to inappropriate relationships between members of staff and children for example:
- Having a sexual relationship with a child under 18 if in a position of trust in respect of that child, even if the child is 16 years or older and the relationship is otherwise consensual;
- Initiating a sexual relationship with a student who is vulnerable (e.g through disability) even if the relationship is otherwise consensual;
- ‘Grooming’ i.e. meeting a child under the age of 16 with intent to commit a relevant offence;
- Other ‘grooming’ behaviour giving rise to concerns of a broader child protection nature (e.g. inappropriate text-e-mail messages or images, gifts, socialising etc…);
- Possession of indecent photographs / pseudo-photographs of children.
The Lead Safeguarding Contact (or Secondary Lead Safeguarding Contact) will contact LADO immediately an allegation is made and inform the Principal and Lead Governor. If an allegation is made against the Principal, then the Lead Governor is to be informed immediately.
It is important that appropriate support is offered to staff against whom an allegation is made. The staff member concerned will be advised to consult their union or professional body to ensure they are offered support.
General considerations relating to allegations and concerns of abuse
The person to whom an allegation or concern is first reported should treat the matter seriously and keep an open mind. They should not:
- Investigate or ask leading questions, but only seek clarification of the allegation/concern;
- Make assumptions or offer alternative explanations;
- Promise confidentiality, but give assurance that the information will only be shared on a ‘need to know’ basis.
- Make a written record of the information (where possible in the child/the person making the allegations’ own words), including the time, date and place of the incident/s, persons present and what was said/done;
- Sign and date the written record;
- Immediately report the matter to the Lead Safeguarding Contact or in his/her absence the secondary safeguarding contact.
- When informed of a concern or allegation, the Lead Safeguarding Contact should not investigate the matter or interview the member of staff, child concerned or potential witnesses; they should:
- Obtain written details of the concern / allegation, signed and dated by the person receiving (not the child / adult making) the allegation;
- Approve and date the written details;
- Record any information about times, dates and location of incident/s and names of any potential witnesses;
- Record discussions about the child and/or member of staff, any decisions made, and the reasons for those decisions.
Advice will be sought from the LADO within one working day and additional advice if needed from the police and/or LA children’s social care about how much information should be disclosed to the accused person. Referral should not be delayed in order to gather information.
Failure to report an allegation or concern in accordance with procedures is serious and a potential disciplinary matter.
The LADO will advise on whether or not informing the parents of the child/ren involved will impede the disciplinary or investigative processes. Acting on this advice, if it is agreed that the information can be fully or partially shared, parent/s /carer/s will be contacted. In some cases, however, the parent/s/carer/s may need to be told straight away (e.g. if a child is injured and requires medical treatment).
Subject to restrictions on the information that can be shared, the accused person will be informed as soon as possible about the nature of the allegation, how enquiries will be conducted and the possible outcomes (e.g. disciplinary action, dismissal or referral to a barring list or regulatory body). The accused member of staff should:
- Be treated fairly and honestly and helped to understand the concerns expressed and processes involved;
- Be kept informed of the progress and outcome of any investigation and the implications for them;
- Be informed about any disciplinary or related process;
- Given the opportunity to be accompanied at meetings by a work place colleague or a recognised trade union representative
- If suspended, be kept up to date about events in the workplace.
Every effort should be made to maintain confidentiality and guard against publicity while an allegation is being investigated and considered. Apart from keeping the child, parents/carers and accused person (where this would not place the child at further risk) up to date with progress of the case, information should be restricted to those who ‘need to know’ in order to protect children, facilitate enquiries, manage related disciplinary or suitability processes.
As soon as possible after an allegation has been received, the accused member of staff should be advised to contact their union or professional association. Human resources should be consulted at the earliest opportunity in order that appropriate support can be provided via the organisation’s occupational health or employee welfare arrangements. The Principal and Lead Governor should be informed of the allegation.
Suspension will be considered in any case where:
- There is cause to suspect a child or vulnerable adult is at risk of significant harm; or
- The allegation warrants investigation by police; or
- The allegation is so serious that it might be grounds for dismissal.
- Where there is a possibility that the employee may interfere or attempt to influence the outcome of the investigation
If a strategy meeting/discussion is to be held or if LA children’s social care or the police are to make enquiries, the LADO should canvas the views of all relevant agencies on suspension; the Lead Safeguarding Contact should liaise with the LADO and other agencies and should be informed by the LADO of the view expressed as to suspension. The lead safeguarding contact should keep the Principal and lead Governor informed.
Only the School has the power to suspend an accused employee and it cannot be required to do so by a local authority or police.
If a member of staff believes that a reported allegation or concern is not being dealt with appropriately by the School, they should report the matter to the LADO.
It is in everyone’s interest for cases to be dealt with expeditiously, fairly and thoroughly and for unnecessary delays to be avoided.
For further information on target timescales and processes post-allegation, see section 15.2 to 15.10 of London Child Protection Procedures, 4th edition, 2010 and sections 5.41 – 5.49 of Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education (DfES 2006).
Appendix 3 – Recognising abuse
Main Categories of Abuse and Safeguarding Issues – Quick Reference Table
Persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development
· Poor personal hygiene
· Inappropriate clothing
· Frequent lateness or non-attendance
· Untreated medical problems
· Poor social relationships
· Compulsive stealing or scrounging
Forcing or enticing a child to take part in sexual activities, physical contact including non-penetrative act, and non-physical contact including making pornographic material, being exposed to sexual activity, encouraging to behave sexually and verbal sexual abuse
· Bruises, scratches, burns or bite marks on the body
· Scratches, abrasions or persistent infections in the anal or genital regions
· Sexual awareness inappropriate to the child’s age
· Public masturbation
· Teaching other children about sexual activity
· Refusing to stay with certain people or go to certain places
· Aggressiveness, anger, anxiety, tearfulness
· Withdrawal from friends
Hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning/scalding, drowning, suffocating, otherwise causing physical harm, or factitious illness by proxy
· Unexplained injuries or burns
· Refusal to discuss injuries/improbable explanations
· Untreated injuries/illness
· Admission of punishment which appears excessive
· Shrinking from physical contact
· Fear of returning home or of parents being contacted
· Fear of undressing or medical help
· Over compliant behaviour or ‘watchful attitude’
· Running away
· Significant changes in behaviour
Persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child causing severe and persistent adverse effects on child’s emotional development
|Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)
FGM comprises all procedures involving the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or any other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.
Warning signs include:
· Talking about FGM
· Disclosure from student to a friend
· Student going to a country where FGM is prevalent
· Prolonged or unexplained absences from school
· Behavioural changes such as withdrawal or depression
· Medical problems
· Reluctance to visit doctor
|Child Sexual Exploitation
Involves exploitative situations and relationships where young people receive a reward as a result of engaging in sexual activities. The perpetrator holds an imbalance of power over the victim. Some people being sexually exploited do not exhibit any external signs
· Inappropriate or sexualised behaviour
· Going to hotels to meet friends
· Getting in/out of cars driven by unknown adults
· Missing from home or school
· Having unaffordable new things
· Gang association
· Physical injuries
· Change in physical appearance
· Evidence of sexual bullying or vulnerability through the internet and/or social networking sites.
· Estranged from their family
· Receipt of gifts from unknown sources.
· Recruiting others into exploitative situations.
· Poor mental health.
There is no single way of identifying who is likely to be vulnerable in this way. Factors may include:
· Lack of self-esteem
· Victim of bullying
· Family tensions
· Searching for personal identify
· Race and hate crime
· Use of internet glorifying violence
· Political grievances
|Other Specific Safeguarding Issues Include:
· Child missing from education
· Bullying including cyber bullying
· Fabricated or induced illness
· Faith abuse
· Forced Marriage
· Gangs and youth violence
· Gender based violence
· Mental health
· Private fostering
· Teenage relationship abuse
Appendix 3B – Recognising abuse (Children)
Recognition of abuse or neglect
Factors described below are frequently found in cases of child abuse or neglect. Their presence is not proof that abuse has occurred, but must be regarded as indicators of the possibility of significant harm. They indicate a need for careful assessment and discussion with the Lead Safeguarding Contact, the Principal, Lead Governor, LADO, Children’s Services and/or police and relevant agencies, and may require consultation with and/or referral to the LA children’s social care and/or Police.
The absence of such indicators does not mean that abuse or neglect has not occurred.
In an abusive relationship a child may:
- Appear frightened of the person who has custody, charge or care of them;
- Act in a way that is inappropriate to their age and development.
The person who has custody, charge or care of the child may:
- Persistently avoid routine child health services and/or treatment when the child is ill;
- Have unrealistic expectations of the child;
- Frequently complain about/to the child and may fail to provide attention or praise
- (high criticism/low warmth environment);
- Be absent or leave the child with inappropriate carers;
- Have mental health problems which they do not appear to be managing;
- Be misusing substances;
- Be involved in domestic violence;
- Fail to ensure the child receives an appropriate education.
Recognising Physical Abuse
Physical Abuse – Physical injury to a child/adult at risk (including hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing harm to a child/adult at risk where there is definite knowledge, or a reasonable suspicion that the injury was deliberately inflicted or knowingly not prevented.
The following are often regarded as indicators of concern:
- An explanation which is inconsistent with an injury;
- Several different explanations provided for an injury;
- The parent/s/carer/s are uninterested in or undisturbed by accident or injury;
- Repeated presentation of minor injuries (which may represent a ‘cry for help’ and if ignored could lead to a more serious injury);
Children can have accidental bruising but the following must be considered as indicators of abuse or harm unless there is evidence or an adequate explanation provided. Only a paediatric view around such explanations will be sufficient to dispel concerns listed below:
- Bruising around the mouth;
- Two simultaneous bruised eyes, without bruising to the forehead (rarely accidental, through a single bruised eye can be accidental);
- Repeated or multiple bruising on the head or on sites unlikely to be injured accidentally;
- Variation in colour possibly indicating injuries caused at different times;
- The outline of an object used (e.g. belt marks, hand prints or a hair brush);
- Bruising or tears around, or behind, the earlobe/s indicating injury by pulling or twisting;
- Bruising around the face;
- Grasp marks;
- Bruising that may be an indicator of sexual abuse (e.g. arms, thighs).
Bite marks can leave clear impressions of the teeth. Human bite marks are oval or crescent shaped. Those over 3cm in diameter are more likely to have been caused by an adult or older child. A medical opinion should be sought where there is any doubt over the origin of the bite.
Burns and scalds
It can be difficult to distinguish between accidental and non-accidental burns and scalds, and will always require experienced medical opinion. Any burn with a clear outline may be suspicious, e.g.:
- Circular burns from cigarettes (but may be friction burns if along the bony protuberance of the spine);
- Linear burns from hot metal rods or electrical fire elements;
- Burns of uniform depth over a large area;
- Scalds that have a line indicating immersion or poured liquid (a child getting into hot water of its own accord will struggle to get out and cause splash marks rather than a distinct line);
- Old scars indicating previous burns / scalds which did not have appropriate treatment or adequate explanation.
Fractures may cause pain, swelling and discolouration over a bone or joint, and loss of function in the limb or joint. Non-mobile children rarely sustain fractures. There are grounds for concern if:
- The history provided is vague, non-existent or inconsistent with the fracture type;
- There are associated old fractures;
- Medical attention is sought after a period of delay when the fracture has caused symptoms such as swelling, pain or loss of movement.
- A large number of scars or scars of different sizes or ages, or on different parts of the body, may suggest abuse.
Recognising Emotional Abuse
Emotional Abuse – The persistent emotional maltreatment of a child/adult at risk, such as to cause severe and persistent effects on the child’s emotional development or the adult’s emotional wellbeing.
- Conveying to the child/adult at risk that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person;
- Imposing age or developmentally inappropriate expectations on children. These may include interactions that are beyond the child’s developmental capability, as well as overprotection and limitation of exploration and learning, or preventing the child participating in normal social interaction;
- threats of abandonment, deprivation of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks;
- Permitting a child/adult at risk to see or hear the ill-treatment of another;
- Serious bullying, causing the child/adult at risk frequently to feel frightened or in danger;
- Exploiting and corrupting children.
Emotional abuse may be difficult to recognise, as the signs are usually behavioural rather than physical. The indicators of emotional abuse are often also associated with other forms of abuse.
Professionals should therefore be aware that emotional abuse might also indicate the presence of other kinds of abuse. The following may be indicators of emotional abuse:
- Developmental delay;
- Abnormal attachment between a child and parent/carer (e.g. over-anxious, or no attachment);
- Indiscriminate attachment or failure to attach;
- Aggressive behaviour towards others;
- Appeasing behaviour towards others;
- Scapegoated within the family;
- Frozen watchfulness;
- Low self-esteem and lack of confidence;
- Withdrawn or seen as a ‘loner’ – difficulty relating to others.
Recognising Sexual Abuse
Sexual Abuse (Children) – This involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, including prostitution, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including penetrative (e.g. rape, buggery or oral) sex or non-penetrative acts. Sexual abuse includes abuse of children through sexual exploitation. Penetrative sex where one of the partners is under the age of 16 is illegal. Prosecution of similar age, non-coerced sexual conduct between children over the age of 13 is not usual. However, where the child is under the age of 13, such conduct is classified as rape under the Sexual Offences Act 2003. Sexual abuse includes non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, pornographic materials; watching sexual activities or encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways.
Sexual Abuse (Adults at Risk) – Any direct or indirect sexual activity where the adult at risk cannot or does not agree to that activity.
Sexual abuse can be very difficult to recognise and reporting sexual abuse can be an extremely traumatic experience for a child. Therefore both identification and disclosure rates are deceptively low. Boys and girls of all ages may be sexually abused and are frequently scared to say anything due to guilt and / or fear. If a child makes an allegation of sexual abuse, it is very important that they are taken seriously. Allegations can often initially be indirect as the child tests the professional’s response. There may be no physical signs and indications are likely to be emotional / behavioural. Behavioural indicators which may help professionals identify child sexual abuse include:
- Inappropriate sexualised conduct;
- Sexually explicit behaviour, play or conversation, inappropriate to the child’s age;
- Contact or non-contact sexually harmful behaviour;
- Continual and inappropriate or excessive masturbation;
- Self-harm (including eating disorder), self-mutilation and suicide attempts;
- Involvement in sexual exploitation or indiscriminate choice of sexual partners;
- An anxious unwillingness to remove clothes for e.g. sports events (but this may be related to cultural norms or physical difficulties).
Physical indicators associated with child sexual abuse include:
- Pain or itching of genital area;
- Blood on underclothes;
- Pregnancy in a child;
- Physical symptoms (e.g. injuries, bruising).
Sex offenders have no common profile, and it is important for professionals to avoid attaching any significance to stereotypes around their likely background or behaviour. While media interest often focuses on ‘stranger danger’, research indicates that as much as 80 per cent of sexual offending occurs in the context of a known relationship, either family, acquaintance or colleague.
Neglect (Children) –“Neglect” means the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, such as would be likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development. Neglect may involve a parent/carer failing to:
- Provide adequate food, clothing and shelter (including exclusion from home or abandonment);
- Protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger;
- Ensure adequate supervision (including the use of inadequate care-givers);
- Ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment.
- It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
Neglect and acts of omission (Adults at Risk) –Neglect and acts of omission can include ignoring an adult at risk’s medical or physical care needs, failure to provide him/her with access to appropriate health, social care or educational services, the withholding of the necessities of life, such as medication, adequate nutrition and heating.
Professionals should establish whether seemingly minor incidents are in fact part of a wider pattern of neglectful parenting. Indicators of neglect include:
- Failure by parents or carers to meet essential physical needs (e.g. adequate or appropriate food, clothes, warmth, hygiene and medical or dental care);
- Failure by parents or carers to meet essential emotional needs (e.g. to feel loved and valued, to live in a safe, predictable home environment);
- A child seen to be listless, apathetic and unresponsive with no apparent medical cause;
- Failure of child to grow within normal expected pattern, with accompanying weight loss;
- Child thrives away from home environment;
- Child frequently absent from school;
- Child left with inappropriate carers (e.g. too young, complete strangers);
- Child left with adults who are intoxicated or violent;
- Child abandoned or left alone for excessive periods.
Disabled children and young people can be particularly vulnerable to neglect due to the level of care they may require.
Although neglect can be perpetrated consciously as an abusive act by a parent, it is rarely an act of deliberate cruelty. Neglect is usually defined as an omission of care by the child’s parent, often due to one or more unmet needs of their own. These could include for e.g.:
- Domestic violence;
- Mental health issues;
- Learning disabilities;
- Substance misuse;
- Social isolation/exclusion
Bullying is deliberately hurtful behaviour, usually repeated over a period of time, where it is difficult for the victims to defend themselves. The three main types of bullying are:
- Physical abuse (e.g. hitting, kicking, stabbing and setting alight), including such abuse when filmed with mobile telephones;
- Verbal abuse such as name-calling or threats – this type of non-physical bullying may include sexual harassment
- Emotional abuse (e.g. isolating an individual from the group or emotional blackmail).
Bullying can also include:
- Theft, commonly of mobile telephones;
- Information and communication technology (ICT)-based forms of abuse including mobile telephone/online (internet) message abuse (e.g. racist, sexist or homophobic);
- Mobile telephone or online (internet) visual image abuse – these can include real or manipulated images;
There is the potential for bullying wherever groups of children spend time together on a regular basis.
Bullying outside the home can be an indication that a child could be experiencing abuse at home.
Bullying can rapidly escalate into sexual or serious physical or emotional abuse.
The harm caused to children by the harmful bullying behaviour of other children can be significant (physical, sexual, emotional harm). Such abuse should be subject to the same safeguarding children procedures as apply in respect of children being abused by an adult.
Information and communication Technology (ICT)-based forms of abuse
Information and communication technology (ICT)-based forms of child physical, sexual and emotional abuse can include bullying via mobile telephones or online (internet) with verbal and visual messages.
If a member of staff or a student suspects illegal or unacceptable use of School information technology resources they should report it to their line manager (staff) or Head of Department (students) see “Acceptable use and Security of IT. and Telecommunications equipment Policy for Staff and Students”.
Stranger Abuse– Stranger abuse refers to any abuse of a child perpetrated by an adult who is not a family member.
Organised Abuse – This may be defined as abuse involving one or more abuser and a number of related or nonrelated abused children young people and/or Adults at Risk. The abusers concerned may be acting in concert, (sometimes in isolation) or may be using an institutional framework or position of authority to recruit children for abuse. Organised and multiple abuse can occur both as part of a network of abuse across a family or community, and within institutions such as residential homes or schools.
Disabled Children – Children with a disability may be generally more vulnerable to significant harm through physical, sexual, emotional abuse and/or neglect than children who do not have a disability. Disabled children may be especially vulnerable to abuse for a number of reasons:
- Many disabled children are at an increased likelihood of being socially isolated with fewer outside contacts than non-disabled children;
- Their dependency on parents and carers for practical assistance in daily living, including intimate personal care, increases their risk of exposure to abusive behaviour;
- They may have an impaired capacity to resist or avoid abuse;
- They may have speech, language and communication needs which may make it difficult to tell others what is happening;
- They may not have access to someone they can trust to disclose that they have abused;
- They are especially vulnerable to bullying and intimidation.
- Child/adult at risk abuse exists and can present itself in any of the above forms or in combination.
- Children may be abused and/or neglected by their parents, carers, guardians or other trusted adults as well as by strangers.
- Abuse may be perpetrated by individuals, groups or networks of individuals.
- Children may also be abused by other children.
Appendix 3b – Recognising abuse (Adults at Risk)
Many of the signs of physical abuse and neglect are the same as in child abuse but there are some additional signs of abuse in Adults at Risk.
At first, you might not recognise the signs of abuse. In elderly people, for instances, they may appear to be symptoms of dementia or signs of the elderly person’s frailty.
Examples of adult abuse include:
General signs of abuse:
- Where there is a carer, frequent arguments between the carer and the adult at risk.
- Changes in personality or behaviour in the adult at risk being abused.
- Isolation from usual network of friends, family or community
Physical abuse or neglect:
- Report of a person taking too much of their medicines or not taking their medicines regularly (a prescription has more remaining than it should).
- Not getting to medical appointments
- Broken eye glasses or frames.
- Care service staff refusing to allow you to see the vulnerable person alone.
- Unusual weight loss because of not eating enough food or drinking enough fluids.
- Dirty living conditions: dirt, bugs, soiled bedding and clothes.
- Being left dirty or unbathed.
- Unsafe living conditions (no heat or running water; faulty electrical wiring, other fire hazards).
Financial exploitation may include:
- Significant withdrawals from the adult at risk’s bank account.
- Bills not being paid
- Items or cash missing.
- Suspicious changes in wills, power of attorney, policies or other documents.
- Suspicious addition of names to the person’s signature card.
- Unnecessary services, goods or subscriptions.
Stranger Abuse – Stranger abuse refers to any abuse of an adult at risk perpetrated by someone outside the family/immediate social circle.
- Child/adult at risk abuse exists and can present itself in any of the above forms or in combination.
- Adults at Risk may be abused and/or neglected by members of their family or by those providing services to them, as well as by strangers.
- Abuse may be perpetrated by individuals, groups or networks of individuals.
- Adults at Risk may also be abused by other adults at risk.
Appendix 4 – Staff and Student Safeguarding Code of Conduct
All staff are required to read the Safeguarding Policy and the Keeping Children Safe in Education Summary (2015). All senior School students on a work placement as part of their programme of study which involves contact with children are required to read the Safeguarding policy.
All staff will undertake safeguarding training as part of their induction, and will have further safeguarding training at least every three years.
All students on a work placement will be provided with an appropriate briefing for their placement by the course tutor(s).
Staff (and students) shall:
- Act in a professional manner at all times.
- Dress appropriately at all times, showing respect for pupils and members of the community
- Be Vigilant – “Maintain an attitude of it could happen here”
Ensure that physical contact is appropriate and kept to a minimum
- Where physical contact is necessary, tell the child or adult at risk what you are going to do before making contact
- Outward displays of affection are only appropriate in the case of comforting a distressed child and should normally occur only when another adult is present
Always maintain a professional relationship –
Avoid any attempt to develop a relationship with a child or adult at risk outside of the lesson, project or activity. Never exchange personal information or personal contact details with a child. Never offer a child a lift or any kind of gift. Avoid making personal remarks, discussing personal matters or engaging in conversations with adult themes.
Staff should not confide personal details to children, and should never be party to gossip about colleagues or other children.
Do not have or perceive to have favourites. Do not develop social relationships with children or adults at risk. If you come into contact with a pupil in a social setting, try and move away. If this is not possible try and maintain a professional distance.
Do not accept monetary gifts from children or their family and tell those offering such gifts of the School’s policy so they are not offended. If they wish to make a charitable donation, inform them of the School’s fundraising pages on the website. A small, token, thank you gift (such as a box of chocolates) may be accepted from a child or their family however, it is unacceptable to receive gifts on a regular basis or of any significant value and in these cases it should be reported to the relevant departmental child protection lead who will monitor the appropriateness of any gifts received.
Instrumental tuition sometimes takes place on an individual basis and therefore presents a particular risk. Special care therefore needs to be taken to avoid misunderstanding. The following guidelines should be followed:
- One-to-one lessons should take place at School in a room with a window to the corridor. The window must not be covered.
- When lessons necessarily take place off School premises, parents must agree to this in writing and if a lesson takes place in a student’s or teacher’s home, then the parents/carers must sit in on the lesson.
- One-to-one meetings should take place wherever possible in public or semi-public areas. If in doubt, leave the door open. If a meeting requires confidentiality, it should take place within the School in an office or classroom with a window and another member of staff should be informed in advance.
- Staff should not give a pupil a lift except in exceptional circumstances such as when a group of students are on tour and one becomes ill and needs to get to hospital. It may be in the student’s best interests to be driven to hospital by a member of staff. In such circumstances another member of staff will also need to be present if possible.
Use of phones, electronic communications and e-media
- Where email correspondence is exchanged with pupils this should always be professional, and parents or carers should be included in the correspondence.
- Where possible all electronic communications between staff and pupils should be done through the School’s networking facilities using a School email address
- Over-familiarity or risqué language should be avoided
- Staff should never become “friends” with pupils on Facebook or other social networking sites.
- Pupils’ personal data must be kept secure.
- Staff must uphold confidentiality about pupils and their families at all times.
- Safeguarding concerns will be shared with staff on a need to know basis. Staff must respect this.
Never put a child or vulnerable adult at risk.
Good practice in working with images of children/adults at risk
It is essential that good practice is followed in respect of working with images of children/adults at risk. No photography or filming is carried out without parental or School permission.
The following good practice should be followed:
- Professional photographers and film-makers engaged by the School should be DBS checked or chaperoned and wear badges for identification. They should be accompanied by a member of staff when working with children/adults at risk
- Professional photographers and film-makers engaged by Media or Press should always be accompanied and briefed on guidelines
- Where promotional pictures are taken at School activities every parent or carer should be asked to fill out a photo permission form clearly stating that they give their permission for any images to be used in documentation and publicity in print, in film or on the website by the School. The parent or carer must sign the form and provide contact details. Any parent or carer refusing permission has the right to ask for any images taken inadvertently to be destroyed. Photo permission forms are logged and securely stored for future reference.
- It is essential that no child is named in photographs or films in the public domain and members of the press should be briefed accordingly unless prior consent has been given.
- Access to images of children is restricted to DBS-checked staff in the media and marketing departments who are briefed on good practice.
Any incidents which could be misinterpreted should be reported to the member of staff’s line manager immediately and the Lead Safeguarding Contact as soon as possible.
Appendix 5 – Further information and guidance
There are a number of guidance documents, nationally and locally.
Guildhall School Policies
Policy in relation to the admission and support for students entering the School under the age of 18 (Senior School only)
Admission of Students and Criminal Conviction Policy (Senior School only)
Hire of Outside premises policy
UK Travel Policy and Guidance
Overseas Travel Policy and Guidance
Acceptable use and Security of IT. and Telecommunications equipment Policy for Staff and Students
City of London and Hackney
City of London Safeguarding Policy (currently in draft)
City and Hackney Child Protection Guidelines 2008 a
London Child Protection Procedures, 4th edition, 2010
City of London Requirements for Off-Site Activities / Visits 2007
City & Hackney Protecting adults at risk: London multi-agency policy and procedures to safeguard adults from abuse, 2011
Keeping Children Safe in Education Statutory guidance for schools and colleges July 2015
Safeguarding Children: Guidance for Higher Education Institutions
Working Together to Safeguard Children (2015)
What to do if you are worried a child is being abused (2003)
Keeping children safe in education (2015)
Guidance for safer working practice for adults who work with children and young people in educational settings (2009)
Statement of Government Policy on Adult Safeguarding (2013)
Appendix 6 –disclosure form
Child’s or adult at risk’s name:_____________________________________________________
Date of birth: ____________________________
Address of child/adult at risk__________________________________________________
Parent/carer contact details (where relevant):
Note the reason(s) for recording the incident. Ensure the following factual information is included: Who? What? When? Where? Offer an opinion where relevant (how and why might this have happened?) Substantiate the option. Attach a body map or other information if appropriate:
Note action taken, including names of anyone your information was passed to:
Check to make sure your report is clear now – and will be clear to a new reader in the future
Please pass this form to the Lead or Secondary Safeguarding Contact
Name of staff member (printed)______________________________________________________
 “Staff” Includes temporary, support staff and volunteers
 Students on work placements as an approved part of their programme of study.
 Includes temporary, support staff contractors, volunteers, students on work placements